Introduction (pages 2-25)

Introduction (pages 2-25)

Chapter One (pages 27-73)

Chapter One (pages 27-73)

Chapter Two (pages 75-133)

Chapter Two (pages 75-133)

Chapter Three (pages 133-157)

Chapter Three (pages 133-157)

Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood (Chapter Two, pages 75-133)


Deafness and Deafhood in Western Civilisation

p. 75-76 Riker (4:56)

Opens with two quotes – one by Sekou Toure and another by Walter Rodney – on impact of colonialist education and how it negatively impacts the social solidarity and social responsibility.

Discusses the importance of a Deaf space in the academy for Deaf counter-narratives that have not been rendered visible, i.e. mostly unwritten. Explains that Chapters 2 and 3 explores how Deaf communities have been conceived and acted upon during the time span of Western civilisation.

Discusses importance of understanding certain terminology and concepts before reviewing the history of Deaf communities. Also, discusses the importance for members of the majority cultures to unlearn and deconstruct one’s own culturally inherited perceptions in order to participate in engaged understanding.

Keywords: academy, alienated individualism, capitalist individualism, colonialism, counter-narratives, Deaf, Deaf culture, discourses, oralist hegemony, Sekou Toure, social responsibility, social solidarity, Walter Rodney, Western civilization


Discourse Analysis

p. 76-77 Marvin Miller (7:19)

Discusses the concept of “discourse analysis” in understanding how certain thinking, cultural values, and beliefs come to existence and those with prestigious discourses like in universities, medical establishments and communication media can establish “knowledge” and create the “discursive system.” This system has often been a tool of colonialism of minority cultures that do not have the same kind of “discourses” like those of majority cultures.

Keywords: admissible evidence, Ashcroft, canons of truth, Chinese discourses, colonization, cultural patterns, discourse analysis, discursive system, domains, Earth-centered traditions, egalitarian, Foucault, gynaecology, knowledge, madness, majority cultures, midwifery, minority cultures, peasantry, power, sexuality, unspoken rules, Western discourses, working-class



p. 77-78 David O. Reynolds (4:10)

Explains an important concept in understanding the oppression/colonialism of the Deaf world – hegemony.

Keywords: acceptance, Bourdieu, control, Deaf communities, discourse theory, discourses, domination, economic coercion, Foucault, Gramsci, hegemony, ideology, power


Colonialism, Part 1

p. 78-79 (7:18) Grushkin

Summarizes the goal and issues regarding Colonialism and Post-Colonialism Studies. Also, discusses how language domination and audism resembles colonialism for Deaf people. Mentions works by Harlan Lane and Wrigley initiating discussion on colonialism of Deaf communities as well as examining the majority society’s ideologies and discourses that created and perpetuates the colonialism.

Keywords: audism, colonialism, colonization, Deaf communities, deafness, discourse, economic imperative, Harlan Lane, ideology, language domination, majority society, post colonialism, Wrigley


Colonialism, Part 2

p. 79-81 Brenda Jo Falgier (9:41)

Describes colonialism and discusses why Deaf communities should be viewed as being colonized. Introduces those key terminologies: post-colonialism, decolonization, counter-narrative, post-modernism, essentialism, strategic essentialism.

Keywords: colonialism, counter-narrative, culture, Deaf communities, Deaf culture, Deaf experience, Deafhood, deafness, decolonization, discourse, discourse space, essentialism, framework, hegemony, language, lay people, liberation, Merry, post colonialism, post modernism, power relationship, reductionism, strategic essentialism, vision


The Deafhood Concept

p. 81 Kristen Weiner (2:52)

Expands on the concept of Deafhood in the context of preparing the “reader” for the counter-narrative of Deaf history from the Deaf center of which Chapter 2 is about.

Keywords: Bienvenu, Deaf communities, Deaf epistemology, Deafhood, deafness, framing, medically oriented, monolithic concept, Moore & Levitan, oppositional, relationships, space


The Subaltern

p. 81-82 David Eberwein (3:19)

Introduction to the concept of “subaltern” that refers to any group that is denied meaningful access to ‘hegemonic’ power that includes the academic domain. Explains that “Deaf subaltern” refers to those whose lack of English-literacy skills render them effectively monolingual. In constructing a Deaf counter-narrative, it’s vital to ensure the thoughts and actions of Deaf subalterns are captured as well as setting them in relationship to the actions of any (comparatively elite) bilingual Deaf people.

Keywords: academic domains, bilingual Deaf, British, class, counter-narrative, Deaf, elite Deaf, Gramsci, Guha, hegemonic power, India, lack of English-literacy skills, monolingual, post-colonial studies, resistance, subaltern, subaltern Deaf


The Role of Lay People

p. 82-83 Eberwein (4:10)

Explains the difference between the two kinds of “hearing” people – the lay people and the specialists. Lay people are those who do not work in Deaf-related fields and specialists are those who maintain the two key features of colonialism of Deaf peoples: specialism and paternalism.

Also, emphasizes the importance for the lay reader to understand that “virtually all discourses about Deaf people have been conceived, controlled and written by people who were not themselves Deaf.” It’s in the same category of the ethnocentric bias that is involved with the majority of legislation concerning other minority groups.

Points out that Chapter 2 will summarize some of the main patterns in the specialist/paternalist discourses the past 5000 years and across several continents that have greatest relevance to the Deaf communities of the present day.

Keywords: allies, colonialism of Deaf peoples, colonialist, counter-narrative, Deaf people, Deaf-related fields, discourse, ethnocentric bias, ideologies, lay people, paternalism, self-interest, specialism, Western Deaf communities


Majorities Societies and the “Other”

p. 83-84 Grieser (6:53)

Discusses six domains/types of discourses Dr. Ladd identified that Western majority societies delegate responsibility to rationalize and justify their oppressive actions upon “The Others.” They are political and administrative discourses, academic discourses, specialist discourses, medical discourses, scientific discourses and media discourses. They are all part of the discursive system that Deaf communities have to deal with.

Keywords: academic discourse, administrative discourse, agenda, biology, colonized groups, Deaf, disabled, discourse, discursive system, domains, gays and lesbians, ideology, justify, language minority, media discourse, medical discourse, mental health patients, peasant groups, political discourse, prisoners, rationalize, religious minority, scientific discourse, solutions, specialist discourse, the Others, Western majority societies, women, working-class


The Discursive System, Lay People and Deaf/Disabled People

p. 84-86 Jim Brune (8:20)

Discusses the bio-power discursive system concerning the ‘Others’, specifically Deaf and disabled people, run by wealthy people, professionals and politicians. Touches upon the historical development of discourses in four stages of history showing how lay people and Deaf/disabled people have been split as the bio-power discursive system applies more specialism and professionalism. This split has serious consequences when the Deaf/disabled people disagrees with the system and wants to change it because of the four obstacles the system create.

Keywords: 17th century, access, asylums, biopower, colonialist patterns, custodial care, Deaf, degree of acceptance, disabled, discourse, discursive system, Foucault, historical development, institutions, lay discourses, learned helplessness, legal authority, media, medical authority, nation-state, obstacles, political authority, professional classes, professionalism, social classes, specialism, the Others, town societies, village societies


Lay Discourses and the Others

p. 86 Ella Mae Lentz (4:28)

This section discusses the importance of lay discourses in the Deaf (and the Others’) history as well as their relevance for future developments of democratic strategies that the Others and lay people can utilize. Interesting point is there’s no recognition of lay discourses and no academically proper name has been given for that. Important point made that it’s necessary for studies aspiring to academic objectivity to deconstruct the complex relations between lay people and the Others.

Keywords: academic objectivity, Deaf domain, discursive systems, Gramsci, lay discourses, lay people. consumers, members of the public, ordinary people, Others, subaltern, workers


Academic Study and the Others

p. 86-87 Ella Mae Lentz (9:03)

Discusses research on the Others as being framed almost entirely within existing discursive systems. Discusses “liberal ideologies” and some problems with them. Contrasts them with “liberation ideologies.” Explores a bit on academic research’s influence on policy changes and the importance of challenging the ruling hegemonies especially in the academia. Finally, points out the inherited cultural attitudes towards the Others in Western cultures have influenced the British Deaf community (and other Deaf communities) throughout history.

Keywords: academia, Deaf-centered, discourses, discursive system, framework, history, inherited cultural attitudes, lay discourses, liberal ideologies, liberation ideologies, Marxism, Other-centered, Others, power relations, production of knowledge, research, socialism, specialist views, subaltern discourses, Western cultures


Majority Discourses and Deaf Communities

p. 88-90 Jenny Cantrell (11:50)

Keywords: British Deaf-Mute, center, counter-narrative, Deaf art and literature, Deaf communities, Deaf education, Deaf teachers, Deafhood, deafness, Grand Narrative, hearing and speech, hearing impairment, history, isolated Deaf, oralism, perceptions of Deaf people, polarized ideologies, refinements, rural environment, schools for the Deaf, Sicard, sign languages, surdophiles, surdophobes, ur-Deaf communities, urban communities, Van Gils


Deaf People and Graeco-Roman Discourses

Majority Discourses and Deaf Communities

p. 90-92 Kevin Clark (6:45)

Keywords: Aristotle, Augustine, being witness, blind, contracting, Deaf, Deaf-mute, existence, gesture, Graeco-Roman, group, humanity, individuals, intelligence, Justinian law, literacy, making a will, manumitting, monastic class, negative view, philosophers, positive view, primogeniture, ruling class, sign, Socrates, soul, sound, thought, ur-Deaf community, Western literacy


Deaf People in Judaic Discourse

p. 92-93 Ellen Roth (7:32)

Keywords: cognitive level, common language, Crouch, Deaf marriage, Deaf Mutes, existential state, Exodus 4:11, full humanity, group, Jerusalem, Jewish, Judaic, Mishnah, Moses, purification, Rabbi Yehuda, Torah, ur-Deaf communities, VanCleve, Zwiebel


Deaf People and Early Christian Discourse

p. 94 Christopher Palaia (3:43)

Keywords: Augustine, Bede, Christianity, Deaf schools, deafness, deficit model, demonic, educators, Ephphatha, exorcism, Jesus, New Testament, Paul, Romans, St. John of Beverly


Deaf People and Monastic Discourses

p. 94-95 Melvin Patterson (5:23)

Keywords: abbey, Celtic cultures, cross-fertilization, Dark Ages, Deaf children, Etienne de Fay, Hough, marriage, Miles, monastic orders, mute poor, papal decree, silence, visuo-gestural systems, wealthy families


The Status of Gesture in Lay Societies

p. 96-97 Sandra Ammons (6:54)

Keywords: 16th century, Commedia dell’arte, de Saint Loup, Deaf people, Deaf poet, Deusing, Gannon, God and Adam, hand signs, Hymn to Deafness, illustrations, Joachin Dubellay, lay attitudes, masked balls, mime, Mirzoeff, painting, Pierre Desloges, plays with Deaf characters, Polish merchants, positive Deaf-lay relationships, public sermons, renaissance, Roman numerals, sculptures, secret hand-codes, sign, VanCleve and Crouch, visuo-gestural communication modes, Zwiebel


Deaf Artists and Lay Attitudes

p. 97-98 David Call (6:53)

Keywords: arts, Christophoro, Como, cultural politics, Deaf noblemen, Del Arco, Di Betto Biagi, El Mudo, essential humanity, France, frescoes, Gasper, Hererro, high art, intellectual capacities, Italy, Juan de Navarette, King Philip of Spain, latent Deaf facility, Leonardo da Vinci, Lopez, Madrid Deaf community, Mirzoeff, Montaigne, Pedro, philosophy, primitive, Raphael, Sarti, Sistine Chapel, Spain, The Dumb Woman


Deaf People in Turkish Ottoman Society

p. 98-100 Patricia Raswant (7:27)

Keywords: bathhouses, Bobovius, court executioners, Deaf, Deaf attendants, exponents of martial arts, messengers, Miles, Muslim society, Ottoman Empire, Ricaut, servants, sign language, spoken language, Sultan, Turkey, Western Europe


The Story of Martha’s Vineyard

p. 100-102 Colin Piotrowski (7:05)

Keywords: bilingualism, BSL, community, Deaf gene, Deaf people, deafness, Great Fire of London, Groce, handicapped, Kentish Weald, linguistic communication, Maidstone, Martha’s Vineyard, Pepys, prime marker, Sacks, sign language, Sir George Downing


The Enlightenment Onwards

p. 102-103 Elizabeth Brading (6:38)

Keywords: Barbados, Benjamin Ferrers, Bulwer, Charles Dickens, Christian heritage


Deaf People and the Beginnings of Educational Discourse

p. 103-104 Darline Gunsauls (4:24)

Keywords: ancillary skill, Deaf people, Deaf subjects, Enlightenment, European intelligentsia, Hearing masters, hearing people, humanity, Justinian Code, lipreading, nobility, paternalism, pedagogical condition, speech


From Enlightenment towards the 19th Century Hearing Discourses – Part A

p. 104-106 Chriz Dally (9:31)

Keywords: Augustine, Christian perspective, Claude Deseine, Condillac, Danton, Deaf artists, Deaf headmasters, Deaf people, Deaf teachers, Deaf-hearing interactions, Descartes, Diderot, Ecole des Ceaux-Arts, Enlightenment, facial busts, French Revolution, Judaic discourses, Kant, Legion d’Honneur, Leibniz, Mirabeau, Montaigne, National Assembly, nature of language, nature of Man, Paris, pedagogical condition, philosophers, political organization, Prieur de la Marne, public exhibitions, publicly funded school for Deaf, Robespierre, Rousseau, royalty, Salon, school for Deaf children, sign languages, Socrates, Voltaire, working-class people


From Enlightenment towards the 19th Century Hearing Discourses – Part B

p. 106-107 Marvin Miller (5:40)

Keywords: animalistic nature, automata, Berthier, colonialism, Deaf schools, deficit discourses, Desloges, discipline, Enlightenment, expunged discourses, Forrestier, Foucault, French Revolution, humanizing element, imperialism, institutions, isolation, lay people, medical discourses, New Testament, oralist hegemony, pedago, private tutoring, Sicard, society of Deaf people, souls, speech-oriented discourses, sub-human nature, surveillance, wealthy families


From Enlightenment towards the 19th Century Deaf Discourses – Part A

p. 108-109 Nan Zhou (7:08)

Keywords: artistic tuition, Bastille, bookbinder, Deaf communities network, Deaf community, Deaf discourses, Deaf education, Deaf humanizing process, Deaf migration, Deaf schools, farming, French Revolution, Gallaudet University, Jacobin cause, l’Epee, National Deaf-Mute College, oralist attacks, paper-hanger, Paris, paternalistic shortcomings, Pierre Desloges, self-education, sign language, trade training


From Enlightenment towards the 19th Century Deaf Discourses – Part B

p. 109-111 Butch Zein (7:19)

Keywords: Berthier, Deaf discourses, Deaf Mutes, Deaf networks, Deafhood, different sign languages, Forestier, grammars, hearing journalist, international, Lamartine, Lenoir, liberation, magazines, Mottez, Nature, orators, Paris banquets, progress, separate limiting languages, sign languages, universal nature of signs, Victor Hugo


From Enlightenment towards the 19th Century Deaf Discourses – Part C

p. 111-112 Ella Mae Lentz (10:09)

Keywords: Afrocentric discourses, Deaf discourse, Deaf education, Deaf state, deaf-mute nation, Deafhood, Dreyfus affair of 1894, emancipation, Flourney, French Revolution, gift, global citizenship, Jewish discourses, lay people, male elite, oralism, Paris banquets, Paris Commune of 1870, Paris Deaf school, Revolutions of 1848, sign languages, sign-impaired, spoken languages, tenets


The Discourses of Hearing Allies

p. 113 Alyce Reynolds (2:16)

Keywords: allies, Bebian, Berthier, Deaf discourses, Deaf education, Deaf schools, Deaf tenets, hearing discourses, l’Epee, liberals, modus operandi, Sicard, Thomas Gallaudet, USA


Oralist Discourses and Deaf Communities

p. 113-114 Alyce Reynolds (3:30)

Keywords: 19th century, Christian discourse, Deaf clubs, Deaf organizations, Deaf people, Deaf publications, Deaf schools, discursive system, formal analysis, inferiority, inhumanity, Johann Amman, l’Epee, media, Oralist movement, sign language, total reversal


Colonialism and Oralist Discourses

p. 114-115 Mark Myers (3:59)

Keywords: anthropology, civilized man, colonialism, cultures, Deaf people, Enlightenment, gesture, ideological reinforcement, imperialist project, Native people, oralist discourse, savages


The Emergence of Scientism and Medical Discourses – Part 1

p. 115-117 Joey Baer (5:49)

Keywords: adventitious deafness, causes of deafness, colonialist impulse, conceptual nexus, congenital deafness, cure, Deaf achievements, Deaf discourses, Deaf teachers, ear, eardrum piercing, electricity, Eustacian tube, hearing teachers, illness, Itard, John Kitto, leeching, medical discourse, Meniere, mutism, negative perception, Paris school, quasi-scientific discourse, Science, skull fracturing, wealthy and powerful


The Emergence of Scientism and Medical Discourses – Part 2

p. 117 Tanja Bierschneider (6:36)

Keywords: 1880, African colonization, bio-power, cars, class superiority, colonialism, Darwin, Deaf children, dominance, evolution, global wealth, imperialist, industrial class, Industrial Revolution, Jim Crow, Manifest Destiny, medicalist, mercantile class, mills, Nature, nobility, Northern Europe, oralist, planes, progress, racial superiority, railways, rockets, savage, scientist, Social Darwinism, tanks, White people, working-class


The Emergence of Scientism and Medical Discourses – Part 3

p. 118-119 Toby Welch (8:10)

Keywords: 30 states, Alexander Graham Bell, Baltimore Deaf mission, credibility, Deaf children, Deaf intermarriage, debased stock, defective race, educational system, eugenics movement, formidable web, God, great calamity, human race, immigration, legislation, medico-scientific domains, oralism, political power, Science, sides of a coin, social power, sterilization, telephone, USA


Social Class and 19th Century Discourses on Welfare & Charity

p. 119-120 Roberta Lynn Daniels (6:30)

Keywords: Christian charity, culturo-linguistic model, Deaf clubs, Deaf helplessness, Deaf schools, dependency, discipline, Foucault, gratitude, hospitals, mental asylums, mercantile middle-class, merely teachers, Milan Congress’ resolutions, newly rich capitalists, nobility, normal people, oralism, Others, Parisian banquets, Poor Law, prisons, public funding, recipients of charity, Royal Commission of 1889, schools, sick and infirm, social-control model, squalor and misery, submissiveness, surveillance, urban landscape, voluntary organizations, welfare state


Oralism and the Renewed Religious Discourse

p. 120-123 Jason Toziar (7:12)

Keywords: Balestra, capitalism, charity discourse, Christian submissiveness, Christianity, class, Deaf, Deaf education system, deficit model, demonological model, Devil, Enlightenment, French clergy, Harlan Lane, hearing specialists, Italian clergy, medical model, medicine, Milan Conference, oralism, paternalistic profession, pedagogical condition, petit bourgeoisie, race, religion, Science, sign language, signs, Solomon, Tarra, totalitarian inevitability, Victorian discourse, wealth


Micro-Physics of Power and the Oralist Discursive System

p. 123-124 Stacy Gough (7:18)

Keywords: bio-power, classification systems, colonialism, Deaf education, Deaf-mute, deafness, discipline, discourses, discursive system, Englightenment, eugenicism, Foucault, hospitals, insane, institutions, international communication, media, mental health, micro-physics, Milan Conference, oralism, power and knowledge, punishment, racial theories, radicals, schools, scientific progress, spectacle, state intervention, The Times, universal education, unmarried mothers


Post-Milan Developments in Deaf Discourse

p. 124-125 Ella Mae Lentz (7:43)

Keywords: Baynton, controversy, Crouch, cultural guidance, Deaf achievements, Deaf clubs, Deaf communities, Deaf elite, Deaf headmasters, Deaf missioners, Deaf non-comformist lay preachers, Deaf periodicals, Deaf schools, Deaf subaltern, Deaf teachers, defending existence of Deaf communities, defending sign languages, discourse themes, education, gossip, hearing paternalists, hearing professional allies, lack of respect, Little Papers, oralism, radical positions, resistance against Oralism, transportation systems, urbanization, Van Cleve


Responses to Oralism – Part A

p. 125-127 David O Reynolds (8:48)

Keywords: BDDA, British Deaf-Mute, China, collective life, Combined Method, criminals, Deaf schools, Earl Granville, Flathead Indians, Germany, individualism, international Deaf discourse, J.S.Long, McGregor, NAD, oralism, Paris banquets, quality of leadership, resistance


Responses to Oralism – Part B

p. 127-128 Melvin Patterson (5:23)

Keywords: 1913, American Deaf, British Deaf-Mute, Deaf club, Deaf history, Deaf magazines, Deaf school, Deaf speeches, Deaf-run insurance companies, delegates, film, God, headmasters, international Deaf congresses, Joseph, King Edward VII, Milan, NAD, noblest gift, Oralists, outpourings, Paris 1900, petition, pharaohs, political activism, ratify oralism, restoration of signing, sign language preservation, teachers, uprisings, Veditz


The “Post-Milan” Aftermath — Defeating Deaf Discourses

p. 128-132 Marvin Miller (13:50)

Keywords: Alexander Graham Bell, bible of Oralism, Chambellan, classification discourse, continual speech lesson, Deaf artists, Deaf communal existence, Deaf editors, Deaf people divisions, Deaf professionals, Deaf publishers, Deaf teachers, dismal results, Edward Miner Gallaudet, eugenics, Farrah, Forestier, Foucault, French inspector general, Nature vs Scientific Progress, Nazi Germany, oralism, Paris school, removal of Deaf teachers, sail, sign language, signing Deaf education, standard of proficiency, steam navigation, subnormality of Deaf children, tear from soul, Tillinghast


Chapter Two Summary

p. 132-133 Ella Mae Lentz (6:39)

Keywords: 1900, capitalism, class issues, Deaf-Hearing cooperation, deafness, discourses, exile, Harlan Lane, lay people, oralism, Parisian banquets, political attitudes and practices, surdophilic view, surdophobic view, tenets, wealth, Western societies