Introduction (pages 2-25)

Introduction (pages 2-25)

Chapter One (pages 27-73)

Chapter One (pages 27-73)

Chapter Two (pages 75-133)

Chapter Two (pages 75-133)

Chapter Three (pages 133-157)

Chapter Three (pages 133-157)

Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood (Chapter One, pages 27-73)


Deaf Communities

p. 26-27 Gough (5:23)

Introduces Chapter 1 which focuses on Deaf communities based on “insider readings”.

Keywords: anthropology, Deaf communities, insider readings, research, terminology, United Kingdom, USA, Western cultures


What did you do in the Deaf Wars, Daddy?

p. 27-30 Gough (11:16)

A brief overview of recent positive exposure of Deaf people and Sign Language in general society and the damages wrought on Deaf communities by Oralism since the 1880 Milan Conference which can be considered Deaf holocaust. Also, a summary of a rare research on Oralism in the late 1970’s by Reuben Conrad and his group. Discussion on the word “holocaust” and how it can be applied to what Deaf communities went through.

Keywords: academics, ban of Sign Language, charity, Deaf, Deaf against Deaf, Deaf history, Deaf reaction, deafness, dimensions, disabled, enabling holocausts, firing of Deaf teachers, global citizenship, holocaust, liberal reaction, lipreading skills, mask of benevolence, media, mental health, Middle Passage, Milan Conference, Native people, oralism, Oralist dominance, political cause, popularity of Sign Language, research, Reuben Conrad, speech skills, witchburning


Silence, Cunning and Exile

p. 30-32 Falgier (9:05)

Discusses the Oralism/Mask of Benevolence’s powerful grip on media in framing society’s thinking about Deaf people and their issues — confusing them about Deaf people as individuals vs as a community. Also, Oralism colonialism damaged Deaf organizations’ abilities to be Deaf-centered, confident, independent from the Mask of Benevolence.

Keywords: activism, awareness, BSL recognition, cochlear implants, communication disorders, cure, Deaf organizations, Deaf President Now protest, defectology, extremism, FDP, Gallaudet University, legal issues, march, Marlee Matlin, mask of benevolence, media, oralism, Oralism offshoots, petition, politics, sign language, sign language education, sign language visibility, South Africa


Towards Deafinitions

p. 32-33 Brading (4:49)

Discusses the issues behind determining accurate numbers of Deaf people as opposed to people who lost hearing later in life (hard of hearing or deafened); clarification of some Deaf terminology; questions WHY in spite of a potentially very large Deaf community worldwide, there continues to be a struggle to RECOGNIZE Deaf people do have a community.

Keywords: Capital D, China, Deaf census, Deaf communities, Deaf organizations, deafened, deafness, government policy, hard of hearing, hearing impaired, hearing loss, India, Institute of Hearing Research, language barrier, sign language, small d, terminology, United Kingdom, USA, worldwide


Medical and Cultural Confusions

p. 34-35 Zhou (6:06)

Oralists using hearing aids to isolate partially deaf children from Deaf communities; discusses importance of full interactions within GROUPS to fully embrace language and culture. Finally, the medical and cultural confusions are deliberate by those advocating Oralism.

Keywords: acquisition, Deaf school, enculturation, hearing aids, lipreading, mainstreaming, membership criteria, oralism, partially deaf


Culture and Disability Confusions

p. 35-36 Weiner (6:50)

Opening part of this section says “Over the last 100 years, ‘medical’ and ‘social’ models of deafness have viewed Deaf people as disabled and situated them accordingly within its practices. However, the very recent ‘culturo-linguistic model’ has produced a contemporary Deaf discourse which refuses this categorisation and denies that degree of hearing impairment has relevance for cultural membership.” This reflects the second (out of 3) clash of discourses about the Deaf situation covered in this video.

Keywords: abnormality, access, audiological grey area, cochlear implants, culturo-linguistic model, deafness, disability medical model, disability social model, genetic manipulation, hearing impairment, linguistic minority, mainstreaming, oralism, psychic damage, socialisation patterns


Ethnocentric Confusions

p. 36-37 Farinha (5:19)

Discusses ethnocentricity as the third confusion causing problems for the general public to understand the Deaf situation in their goals to achieve linguistic and cultural recognition.

Keywords: ally, Black people, collectivism, community, compassion, Deaf culture, Deafhood, equality, ethnocentricity, future generations, Gentiles, Harlan Lane, history, humor, individualism, Jewish people, longtime friendships, majority culture, men, oppression, sign language, stereotype, stigma, struggle, White people, women


Contesting Community Authenticity

p. 37-39 Miller (5:52)

Discusses the negative impacts of the 3 confusions discussed in previous 3 sections have on Deaf people’s political and academic goals. Mentions the Smithsonian Museum’s attempt to exhibit American Deaf community and Oralism’s impact on it during the 1990’s and how the Alexander Graham Bell Society thwarted it. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of the term “deaf-mute” to clarify. Points out who is really benefitting & who is NOT benefitting from this confusion and cover-up.

Keywords: AGBell, Deaf community, Deaf history, Deaf-mute, oralism, politics, representation, Smithsonian Museum, United Kingdom, USA


Deafinitions of Community

p. 39-41 Grushkin (10:02)

Discusses difficulty of defining “community,” and several attempted definitions including “imagined communities”, as it applies to Deaf community. Also, discusses using the singular form “Deaf community” or should consider the plural “Deaf communities.” Finally, points out importance of having clear boundaries/borders for a community to have better advocacy and political action plans.

Keywords: Anderson, Baker, community, Deaf community, DEAF-WORLD, discourse theory, imagined communities, Padden, Williams


Deaf Community Membership

p. 41-42 Witteborg (5:10)

Discusses Deaf community membership, three routes/avenues into community, 5 kinds of partial memberships, other key membership characteristics (criteria) such as enogamous marriages (relationships) and use of the national sign language.

Keywords: attitudinal deafness, community avenues, Deaf community, Deaf parents, endogamous marriage, membership, membership criteria, national sign language, partial membership, sign language


Education and Socialisation

p. 43-44 Lentz (6:01)

Mentions that Deaf community as a linguistic minority differs from other linguistic minorities in the sense that 90-95% of Deaf people learn the language and culture NOT from their parents, but the important avenue of Deaf schools. The conclusion emphasizes the need to build the historical dimension to the idea of traditional Deaf community so that modern variations have something to be measured against. Traditional Deaf community consists of Deaf people who attended Deaf schools and met either in Deaf clubs or at other Deaf social activities. Also, the term “Deaf community” is clarified to refer to the global/international community more than to one nation.

Keywords: Baker & Padden, Deaf adults, Deaf clubs, Deaf education, Deaf school, Deaf social activities, Deaf teachers, linguistic minority, oralism, traditional Deaf community


Deaf Community Practices

p. 44-46 Zein (6:15)

An introduction to the overview of Deaf community – especially in the USA, United Kingdom, Western Europe and possibly Japan with emphasis that we should study it with important lenses to enable us to consider the extent of damage done to the community by Oralism. Importance of understanding the dynamics of the community in relation to Oralism the past 100+ years.

Keywords: Deaf arts, Deaf club, Deaf community, Deaf politics, Deaf praxis, Deaf school, Deaf sports, Dimmock, dynamics, Japan, network, oralism, Schein, subsistence level, UK, USA, Western Europe, Widell


Deaf Clubs

p. 46-47 Ammons (7:47)

Describes history of Deaf clubs, especially those in the United Kingdom, their typical power structure, membership from the community. Also discusses relationships to Deaf clubs by different groups of Deaf people. Discuss possible reasons for the significant decline in numbers attending clubs starting in the mid-1980’s in the USA and the late 1990’s elsewhere.

Keywords: Allsop, club activities, Deaf clubs, Deaf norms and values, Jackson, Kyle, management committee, missioner, pub culture, rebels, social committee


Deaf Sport

p. 47-48 Ammons (6:04)

Touches upon activities surrounding Deaf clubs, especially Deaf sport, the underrated source of community pride and unity, giving “Deaf people the strong sense of taking charge of their own lives.” Other activities are the dances, parties, dinners, receptions taking place at the Deaf club, private homes or hired premises as well as international activities that come with traveling aboard.

Keywords: British Deaf Sports Council, camping, caravanning, chess, dances, Deaf international soccer, dinners, film-making, hearing terrain, holidaying, motor-biking, mountain-climbing, parties, party games, pubs, rebels, receptions, social activities, sport, travel, World Games for the Deaf, yachting, younger Deaf


Deaf Artistic Practices

p. 48-50 Macias (3:20)

Discusses several of the artforms that the Deaf community has embraced all those years: folk arts (storytelling, creative sign-play) and visual arts. Mentions that before Oralism, Deaf artists created art that had political messages and gained recognition from the majority culture(s), but that drastically reduced during the heyday of Oralism. Artists made a good comeback during the Resurgence. Recently, Deaf arts organizations have popped worldwide, giving support to Deaf artists.

Keywords: arts, creative sign-play, cultural life, folk arts, games, humour, jokes, Miles, Mirzoeff, oralism, resurgence, Rutherford, social life, storytelling, visual arts


Deaf Performing Arts

p. 50-52 Cole (10:08)

Discusses the four types of Deaf performing arts: theatre, poetry, cabaret and songs.

Keywords: BDDA, Deaf cabaret, Deaf clubs, Deaf poetry, Deaf songs, Deaf theatre, Dorothy Miles, Interim Theatre, National Theatre of the Deaf


Deaf Communication Media Printed Media

p. 52-53 Cantrell (9:40)

Discusses the role of printed media in the Deaf community in United Kingdom and United States.

Keywords: ABC Deaf Sports, BBC, British Deaf News, BSL, Channel 4, Deaf American, Deaf culture, Deaf schools, deafened, DeafUK, discourse, hard of hearing, literature, missioners, novels, NUD, parish magazines, poetry, print workshops, short stories, Silent Worker, The Argonaut, The Voice


Deaf Film and Video Media

p. 53-54 Witteborg (7:17)

Summarizes films by Deaf people since films started during the silent film era, during the Deaf Resurgence, and potential future of Deaf film/video media.

Keywords: Charlie Chaplin, Chase Productions, Deaf discourse, Deaf documentaries, Deaf resurgence, Granville Redmond, His Busy Hour, London Deaf Video Project, NAD 1913 films, Scandinavia, Schumann, silent movie era


Televisual Media

p. 54-56 Joey Baer (6:55)

Describes the Deaf experience with the medium of TELEVISION in the United Kingdom, i.e. See Hear and Sign On. Mentions two examples in the United States (Deaf Mosiac and Rainbow’s End).

Keywords: BBC, Channel 4, Deaf Advisor, Deaf discourse, Deaf Mosaic, direct governmental funding, Educational TV, Gallaudet, hearing impaired, Listening Eye, media, Oralist dominance, Rainbow’s End, Scandinavia, See Hear, Sign On, television, televisual media


Deaf Participation in Majority Society Overall Participation

p. 56-57 Falgier (7:51)

First part explains what Deaf participation in majority society means and states there is rarely any studies into this area. Second part shares statistics from two researches on types of jobs Deaf people have (unskilled manual labor, semi-skilled manual labor or personal services, and skilled manual labor or professional jobs). Lastly, discussion on the negative impact of underemployment of Deaf people on Deaf communities in terms of independence and self-sufficiency vs dependence on the welfare system.

Keywords: disposable income, jobs, Kyle and Allsop, Kyle and Pullen, negotiation in public, negotiation with officialdom, neighbours, personal services, professional jobs, semi-skilled manual labor, skilled manual labor, unskilled manual labor, welfare, welfare colonialism


Deaf Higher Education

p. 57-59 Gertz (8:04)

Discusses Deaf people’s experience in higher education / post-secondary programs during the 20th century which is almost zero except for the USA with Gallaudet University. Also discusses the positive aspects of Gallaudet especially during the Oralism era as well as the negative aspects. Closes with number of known Deaf PhD holders at the time of the book’s writing.

Keywords: California State University Northridge, career anxiety, collectivism, CSUN, Deaf PhD holders, Gallaudet University, Hearing mores, higher education, National Deaf Mutes College, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, NTID, oralism, professional work, Rochester Institute of Technology, sign language interpretation, subaltern, welfare worker program


Deaf Minority Groups

p. 59 Lentz (5:00)

Introduction for the section on Deaf minority groups of the Chapter. Discusses Deaf minority groups and the two discourses on relating to other Deaf people: Deaf commonality, and imbibing the discriminatory views of the majority culture that Deaf people grow up or live in.

Keywords: Deaf Catholics, Deaf commonality, Deaf discourse, Deaf minority groups, Deaf Protestants, mainstream culture, native culture, Northern Ireland, oralist hegemony


Deaf Minority Groups: Deaf Women

p. 60-61 Lentz (8:45)

First section briefly covers Deaf women’s roles in Deaf community activities like Deaf clubs, NUD and FDP and in the USA. Second section discusses Deaf Roman Catholics as the Deaf religious minority in the United Kingdom Deaf community in hopes for other Deaf communities to learn more about their own religious minorities.

Keywords: Catholic Deaf schools, Catholic sign variant, community positions, Deaf club, Deaf women, FDP, Glasgow, health groups, International Deaf women organization, male-female roles, National Deaf Catholic Association, national Deaf women organization, NUD, Protestant Deaf clubs, religious minorities, renaissance, roman catholic, Sophie Gallaudet, Thomas Gallaudet, Yorkshire


Deaf Minority Groups: Deaf Ethnic Minorities

p. 61-62 Ritchie Bryant (9:25)

Discusses examples from the UK and USA as examples for readers to make their own self-assessments about other countries in regard to Deaf ethnic minorities. For the UK, it touches upon experiences of the Deaf Jewish community, Deaf offsprings of immigrants who are Black or Asian. For the USA, discusses the racism resulting from the Deaf school apartheid that caused Gallaudet and NAD to admit Black Deaf students/members at much later years from their founding. Closes with mention that much material has been collected around the fascinating interpenetrations of class, race, gender and sexual preference in the USA and UK, but these will be featured in a later volume.

Keywords: apartheid system, BDA, Black professional class, Deaf Asian people, Deaf Black people, Deaf club, Deaf Hispanic, Deaf Native American, divisions between Deaf and deaf, FDP, Gallaudet, hearing aids, Jewish Deaf community, Left activism, mainstreaming, migrants, NAD, NBDA, oral school, oralism, post Civil Rights era, racism, underclass, white Deaf discourses, young Deaf people


Deaf Minority Groups: Deaf Gay and Lesbian Groups

p. 63-64 Jim Brune (8:01)

Briefly discusses these three minority groups within the Deaf communities: Deaf Gay & Lesbian groups, disabled Deaf people and young Deaf people.

Keywords: BDA, Blackpool annual rally, BSL skills, Deaf clubs, Deaf staff, Deaf-based research, Deafblind, disabled, gay and lesbian, learning-disabled, mainstreaming, mental health services, Usher’s Syndrome, young Deaf people


Deaf Organisations and Political Activities

p. 64-67 Alyce Reynolds (10:46)

Explores international and national perspectives on Deaf political organizations, especially in the United Kingdom and United States of America, their history, missions/purposes, focuses, activities, struggles. Also discusses World Federation of the Deaf and European Union of the Deaf.

Keywords: Australian AAD, BDA, BDDA, EUD, framework, highly organized, Irish Deaf Society, lobbying, missioners, NAD, NUD, oralism, politics, post colonialism, Schein, Verney, WFD


Radical or Subalterns Deaf Activities

p. 67-69 Eberwein (11:30)

Discusses radical / subaltern Deaf groups and their activities during the 20th century.

Keywords: 2LPE, ABC Deaf Sports, access to telephone, Alternative Education Conference, arrests, BBC, BDA, BDHS, bilingual education, Charters of Rights, cochlear implant issues, culturo-linguistic model, Deaf, Deaf Broadcasting Campaign, Deaf history, Deaf television programming, Deaf Tribune Group, Dept of Education and Science, direct action, FDP, fear of retribution, France, genocidal, hunger strikes, lack of resources, Lesbian and Gay people, limited English literacy, low self-esteem, Manchester, missioners, NAD, national Deaf marches, negotiations, NUD, oralism, political paralysis, radical, recognition of BSL, Scandinavian Deaf Associations, SHED, sit-ins, subaltern, subaltern activities, The Argonaut, The Bilingual Center, United Nations, USA, Verney, Wolverhampton Six, young Deaf


Deaf Communities and Governmental Relationships

p. 69-72 David Kerr (11:36)

Discusses the organizations and issues creating serious hardships for the Deaf community when they attempt to create long-term community regeneration and sign language policies at the governmental level. Experiences differ from country to country, government to government, and the governments discussed here are the Scandinavian ones, UK and Ireland. In UK and Ireland, there exists a teritary strata in the Deaf community’s relationship with their governments by organizations such as Royal National Institute for the Deaf and National (Ireland) Association for the Deaf which are basically “Really Not Interested in the Deaf”.

Keywords: advisory group, annual turnover, class issues, community regeneration, Deaf culture, Deaf organization, disability, government, Ireland, language planning, medical deafness, National Association for the Deaf, oralist bias, qualifications, Royal National Institute for the Deaf, Scandinavia, SDR, Sweden, token hearing-impaired person, UK, wealthy family


Summary: Political Oppression Deaf Communities as Colonies

p. 72-73 Kathy Say (3:39)

The last section of Chapter One in Dr. Ladd’s “Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood” proposes the the evidence points to the idea of Deaf communities’ experience resembling the colonialist situation. It also mentions what is needed to reverse that situation, including getting those who are interested in multilingual issues to involve the Deaf communities in their work in promoting equality for all languages and cultures.

Keywords: alliance, analytical terms, coalition, colonialist situation, Deaf culture, Deafhood, framework, hearing impairment, Lane, linguistic minority, mask of benevolence, Mirzoeff, misconceptions, multilingual issues, political, praxis, systematic exploration, Western civilisation, Wrigley